Loudoun County operates under the "Traditional Form" of county government, the most commonly used form in the Commonwealth. The Board of Supervisors is responsible for the legislative and administrative affairs of the County and appoints a County Administrator to oversee the day-to-day administration on its behalf. In addition, elected officials are responsible for the conduct and administration of various aspects of the County's affairs. Other elected officials include the Commissioner of the Revenue, Treasurer, Clerk of the Circuit Court, Commonwealth's Attorney, and Sheriff.
The County's FY 2021 Total Operating Budget is approximately $3 billion, and its FY 2021-2026 Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) Budget totals $2.9 billion. Loudoun County boasts a workforce of approximately 4,294 FTEs.